Addiction Recovery and Substance Abuse Glossary2021-01-27T15:30:47-04:00

Addiction Recovery Glossary

Abstinence -

Avoiding the use of addictive behavior, drugs, or alcohol.

Abuser -

(Stigma Alert) An individual who lacks control over the use of addictive substances or other addictive behaviors in spite of experiencing serious issues from engaging in such activities.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) -

(Pronounced like “act”) Is a cognitive behavioral method based on the ideas of affirmation, thoughtfulness, and individual beliefs used to treat drug use illnesses.

Acetaminophens -

Over the counter drugs that alleviate pain and fever. Commonly known as Tylenol.

ACOA (Adult Children of Alcoholics)- -

A group where adults who grew up in home’s of alcoholic parents can find support from one another.

Act 106 of 1989 -

A law in that defines the minimum subsidies given to drug and alcohol addiction treatment under most group insurance plans in Pennsylvania.

Acute care -

Brief, monitored, medical care carried out through most addiction therapy programs that lasts up to 31 days.

ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) -

A behavioral disorder that is marked by a pattern of inattentiveness and/or hyperactivity that inhibits learning, functioning, and development.

Addict -

A slang term that stigmatizes people suffering from addictive disorders.

Addiction -

A continuous disorder involving the physiological need for substances such as drugs or other addictive substances or actions that inhibit an otherwise healthy individual’s physical and psychological well-being.

Addiction Assessment -

The determination of the existence and severity or chemical dependency in a patient or client.

Addiction counselor -

A counselor that specializes in the treatment of individuals suffering from substance abuse or other addictive behaviors. There are different titles for addiction counselors such as Substance Abuse Counselors (SACs), credentialed alcoholism and substance abuse counselors (CASACs), or certified alcohol and drug counselors (CADCs).

Addiction Medicine Physician -

A doctor who is board certified in a certain specialty like family medicine, neurology, and pediatrics who specializes in addiction diagnosis, treatment, and management. These physicians typically provide short-term counseling.

Addiction psychiatrist -

A physician who is board-certified in psychiatry with expertise in addiction diagnosis, treatment, and management of substance abuse patients. They often cooperate with psychologists and counselors to create a treatment plan that is specific to their patients.

Addiction Tourism -

The method of sending people with substance use disorders to out of state rehabilitation centers for treatment.

Addictive Personality -

Particular characteristics that make someone more susceptible to developing drug, alcohol, or other habit-forming addictions.

ADHD (Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder) -

A condition that affects millions of children and often persists into adulthood that creates difficulty keeping focus, excessive movement that may not fit the setting, and bursts of impulsivity.

Adverse Determination -

A health plan’s denial or limitation of payments requested for behavioral or medical treatments and services.

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) -

A dangerous reaction that occurs suddenly or over time after using a certain drug or a combination of drugs.

Affinity -

The strength of a drug that attracts it to its biological receptor.

Age at Onset -

The age when an individual’s addictive behavior began. This age is an essential factor in addiction evaluation.

Agonist -

A drug that initiates a biological response when combined with a receptor. Examples of opiod receptor agonists include: morphine, heroin, methadone, fentanyl, endorphins, and oxycodone.


A support group and organization for individuals who have been affected by or are worried about people in their lives who suffer from an alcohol addiction disorder. The group focus is based on transforming oneself and their interactions with their loved ones facing addictions, instead of trying to directly alter the alcohol-addicted person’s actions.

Alcohol -

An addictive substance that acts as a depressant to the central nervous system producing reduced inhibitions, motor impairment, relaxation, and memory loss. Alcohol can come in many different forms including hard liquor, wine, and beer.

Alcohol Poisoning -

The result of drinking excess amounts of alcohol in a brief period that can negatively impacts the normal functioning of the body’s organs affecting a person’s heart rate, breathing, and body temperature. In extreme cases, alcohol poisoning can lead to death.

Alcohol Use Disorder -

A repetition of alcohol use exemplified by habitual use of alcohol, lack of control over alcohol use, and a detrimental emotional state when not using alcohol.

Alcoholic -

An individual who displays lack of control over alcohol use even with suffering extreme harm from continued use.

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) -

A 12-step program that revolves around assisting alcoholics with recovery and sustained sobriety. It is the largest mutual-help organization in the world.

Alcoholism -

The continuous intake of alcoholic drinks. At this phase in addiction, the intake of alcohol has altered the brain function of the person experiencing the substance disorder and consumption has become an unavoidable habit. Lack of alcohol use in this stage may lead to symptoms of withdraw.

Alkaloids -

Organic, plant-created organic compounds that found in many drugs. Drugs like morphine and quinine have alkaloids.

Ambivalence -

An inner conflict that is pulling someone in two different directions of whether to continue doing the same thing or to make the necessary adjustments needed to change.

Amphetamine -

A behavioral stimulant that motivates the central nervous system, increasing energy and diminishing appetite. Amphetamines are often used to treat ADHD, obesity, and narcolepsy. These drugs are highly addictive and can cause lasting side effects.

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids -

Artificial substances comparable to the male hormone testosterone. They can stimulate muscle growth and create alterations in male sexual characteristics in men and women.

Analgesics -

A group of medication that reduces pain.

Anesthetic -

A substance that produces insensitivity to pain for surgeries and other medical procedures.

Anonymous -

A concept of confidentiality for substance disorder patients used to keep people safe from addiction status and potential stigma.

Antagonist -

A drug that blocks the effects of another drug such as an illicit substance.


A term frequently used in rehabilitation centers that stands for Alcohol and Other Drugs.

Appeal -

An action an insured individual and their insurance company or authorized individual would take if they came to a disagreement with a health plan’s decision to withhold or deny payment for medical treatment or services. Appeals often come about when a medical plan refuses to cover prescription drug payments that a patient may need.

Assertive Linkage -

A plan created to guarantee a patient moves to the next level of care or connects to recovery support. This often requires a recovery coach to introduce the patient to the next level of care like AA meetings and introducing them to other members experiencing the same issues. Patients have a higher success rate staying in contact with peers other than doctors or providers.

Assessment -

A continuous process that determines the media needs of an individual with substance-related disorders. It can be used in blood and urine samples or clinical diagnostic interviewing.

Back-to-Work Agreement -

A contract between an employer and a union that specifies the terms under which an employee will return to work.

Barbiturate -

A drug that acts as a depressant to the central nervous system promoting relaxation, sedation, and sleep. It is commonly utilized in surgical procedures and treats seizure disorders.

Basal Ganglia -

Often called the brain’s “reward circuit”. This region of the brain plays the role of creating positive forms of motivation involved in the formation of routines and healthy habits, as well as forming the satisfying feeling of activities like eating, socializing and sex.

Behavioral Addictions -

A type of addiction that involves an impulse to participate in rewarding behavior that is non-drug related despite experiencing undesirable outcomes that result from the compulsive actions.

Behavioral Health -

The scientific study of behaviors and emotions concerning an individual’s psychological health and their capacity to function in routine life.

Behavioral medicine -

An interdisciplinary field of medicine that utilizes knowledge taken from multiple specialties to study the social aspects commonly associated with medical conditions and illnesses.

Benzodiazepines -

A psychoactive medications that act as nervous system depressants and are used for sedation, muscle relaxation, and sleep. They are also commonly applied in the treatment of anxiety, seizure prevention, and alcohol withdrawal.

Binge Drinking -

Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol in a brief period. It can be considered binge drinking if a person ingests four or more drinks in a two-hour window.

Bioavailability -

The success rate of at which a drug is absorbed in the body and causes the desired reaction.

Biofeedback -

A technique used to learn how to control certain functions of the body such as heart rate, muscle tone, pain perception, and others.

Biological Model of Addiction -

Understanding addiction as it focuses on pre-determined factors or risk for developing a substance use disorder such as genetics or other biological reasons.

Biphasic Effect of Alcohol -

The consumption of alcohol has a two phase effect on its users causing energizing or positive effects initially, and then by depressive and negative effects subsequently following the positive feelings. Continuing to consume alcohol will not reinitiate the phases of happiness leading into sadness, it will only cause deeper negative effects.

Blackout -

A short term episode of memory loss that results from the over consumption of drugs or alcohol at one time.

Blood Alcohol Level/Concentration (BAC) -

The concentration of alcohol in a person’s bloodstream used to establish the level of intoxication a person is currently under the influence of. It is expressed as a percentage by weight. If you’re over the age of 21, the legal driving limit is 0.08% BAC. The BAC level of alcohol poisoning is 0.250-0.399%. At this point, an individual would lose consciousness or need extensive assistance.

Brainstem -

The structures of the brain responsible for processing sensory information and controlling basic functions such as heart rate, breathing, arousal, and blood pressure.

Brief Intervention -

A type of intervention usually conducted by a trained health care professional where they assist patients in reducing their use of substances or other addictions through feedback and enhanced motivation. The intervention spans over 1-3 sessions, only lasting 5-15 minutes.

Buprenorphine -

A semisynthetic opioid administered through injection, skin patch, or in the form of a dissolvable tablet to relieve pain and treat opioid use disorders.

Caffeine -

A drug that stimulates the central nervous system creating a short-term increase in energy, elevation in mood, and increased alertness. It acts as a diuretic and is found in coffee, teas, sodas.

Cannabidiol (CBD) -

A part of a plant of marijuana used for various medical uses that does not contain THC or any components capable of creating mind-altering effects.

Cannabinoid Receptor -

Brain receptor that recognizes and binds cannabinoids that are produced in the brain or outside the body.

Cannabinoids -

Chemicals found naturally in the brain and in marijuana that connect to cannabinoid receptors. They are involved in memory, thinking, concentration, movement, pain regulation, and food intake.

Carcinogen -

Cancer-causing chemical agent found in cigarettes.

Cardiomyopathy -

A heart muscle dysfunction that causes the heart to not pump blood effectively interfering with normal heart function. It can be caused from alcohol consumption.

Cardiovascular System -

The system in your body consisting of heart and blood vessels that delivers nutrients and oxygen to the cells in the body.

Carfentanil -

A synthetic drug related to fentanyl meant to tranquilize large animals. It is 10,000 times as potent as morphine and has been linked to the sudden spike of overdoses in the US.

Case Management -

The collective method of assessment, development, care coordination, evaluation, and support for decisions and services to assist in disease management. Some examples are family & peer support services, counseling, basic healthcare, or linking people to help organizations.

Casual Factors -

Numerous conditions that create individual chemical dependency issues.

Ceiling Effect -

Occurs when the dosage of a substance is increased beyond maximum levels and the patient sees no substantial results.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) -

Supports community-based substance abuse treatment services

Central Nervous System (CNS) -

A system in the body that sends messages to the entire body, while regulating function. It is comprised of the brain and spinal cord.

Cerebellum -

The area of the brain that assists in the control of emotion, motivation, memory, posture, and coordination.

Cerebral Cortex -

The thin, gray layer of the brain that covers the external section of the cerebrum. IT is responsible in attention, perception, memory, language, and consciousness and is often referred to as gray matter because it has a gray pigment.

Cerebral hemispheres -

The respective halves of the brain.

Cerebrum -

The anterior part of the brain that consists of the left and right hemispheres.

Certified Chemical Dependency Counselor (CCDC) -

A counselor who helps individuals involved in chemical dependency programs recover from addiction.

Chronic Relapse -

A circumstance where an individual suffering from an addiction disorder continues to return to the self-destructive behavior after a period of sobriety.

Cirrhosis -

A disease of the liver that results from extensive damage caused by alcohol and continuous drug use that leads to scarring and liver failure.

Clean -

A state of sobriety or abstinence from drugs or misuse of substances. Can also be used when referring to urine used in drug tests. The term clean has a stigma attached to it because it infers that people who are still suffering from addictive disorders are “dirty”.

Clinical Evaluation -

An assessment administered by a professional to determine the intensity and frequency of mental health issues, occurring disorders, and multiple diagnosis.

Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) -

A measurement used to assess the severity of opioid withdrawal.

Club Drugs -

Psychoactive drugs used by young adults in social settings like nightclubs, concerts, and bars that have a calming, sedative, and mind-altering affect.

CNS depressants -

A group of drugs that decelerates brain activity for the use of panic attacks, anxiety, and sleep disorders consisting of tranquilizers, sedatives, and hypnotics.

Co-dependency -

The excessive psychological or emotional reliance on a friend or partner who offers emotional support during a disease or illness. The term is considered stigmatizing because it creates shame around the concern and care loved ones show for the individual suffering from addiction.

Co-occurring Disorders -

When a person experiences issues from both mental illness and substance use disorder.

Cocaine -

A stimulant drug that creates sensations of overwhelming happiness and increased bursts of energy. Side effects include irritability, rapid heartbeat, dilated pupils, and muscle twitches.

Codeine -

A synthetically produced opioid used to alleviate minor to moderate pain that operates by stimulating the reward areas of the brain related to pain relief. There are several side effects related to the drug including headaches, rashes, constipation, increased heart rate, decreased libido, and lack of coordination. It was approved by the food and drug administration in 1950 and is often combined with acetaminophen and aspirin. It can be a highly addictive substance.

Coercion -

An intimidation tactic used to convince someone to react against their will through emotional stress, physical power, and dangers.

Cognition -

Concerning the act of thinking, insight, and understanding, and memory.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) -

A widely used form of psychotherapy that includes the patient talking with a professional therapist to create awareness of incorrect or pessimistic thinking and behavior, while learning to manage and replace these thoughts with new coping tactics.

Cold-Turkey -

The act of suddenly quitting an addiction by choice when trying to eventually quit long-term.

Commonly Misused Prescription Drugs -

Misused prescription drugs including amphetamines and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications, sleep medications, opioid and morphine-based pain relievers, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines.

Commonly Used Illegal Drugs -

Cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, methamphetamines, club drugs, and marijuana are among some of the commonly used illegal drugs.

Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA/CRAFT) -

A cognitive behavioral type of intervention for people suffering from substance abuse disorders. Its intervention type has been adapted for several demographics including adolescents, family members of those who are resistant or refuse to enter treatment.

Comorbidity -

When two or more illnesses or disorders occur in the same person. Sometimes referred to as dual diagnosis or co-occurring conditions.

Compulsion -

The overwhelming feeling to do something that often becomes a repeated and sometimes harmful when it takes place of everyday activities or work.

Compulsive Behaviors -

The repeated performance of an action that is often used to avoid feelings of distress or negative emotions that are present when not fulfilling the compulsion.

Compulsive Drug Seeking -

The obsessive seeking out of drugs. The behavior is highly irrational and only fueled by the need for drugs.

Conditioning -

A change in behavior that happens as a result of an events being associated.

Consent to Disclose Treatment Information -

A person who has consent to release medical records and other treatment information when a valid consent form has been signed by the patient receiving treatment.

Contingency Management -

A therapy approach based on incentives to sustain positive behavior.

Continuing Care -

Care for patients who are dealing with a chronic illness or disease that leaves them incapacitated. Substance use disorder often requires continued care because after several relapses, the disorder is not easily treated through acute care practices.

Coping Strategies -

Efforts to manage, tolerate, or minimize the effects of stressful events that may come about as a result of illness or disorders. Some general coping strategies have been categorized as problem-solving strategies and emotion focused strategies that regulate recation to potentially traumatic events.

Crack Cocaine -

A highly addictive form of cocaine in “rock” form that is normally smoked.

Cravings -

The bodies psychological “desire” for drugs and alcohol. May come as a response to a trigger, person or place.

Crisis Intervention -

An intervention type that offers short-term help to a person in crisis when they may pose a threat to themselves or their family.

Cross Dependence -

A certain drug’s ability to inhibit withdrawal symptoms of a person’s dependence on another drug.

Cross Tolerance -

When a person’s tolerance for one certain drug causes a diminished response to another type of drug.

Deaths of Despair -

Death because of drug use, alcohol use, or suicide.

Deductible -

The amount a patient must pay before their health insurer will pay any expenses.

Delirium Tremens -

A dangerous type of alcohol withdrawal that involves severe nervous system and mental changes resulting in hallucinations and serious mental confusion. It typically happens 24 hours after the end of alcohol use.

Denial (In an insurance sense) -

The refusal of payment for behavioral or medical treatment services.

Denial (psychological sense) -

Individuals who deny any substance use issues despite evidence that proves their addiction.

Dependence -

When one’s health or functioning is maintained through continued use of a drug. Withdrawal may start upon removal of the specific substance.

Depot Injection -

A medicine administered via injection that gradually releases therapeutic substances into the body over several weeks. This type of injection can reduce problems with substance use disorders.

Depressants -

Sedatives that act on the central nervous system blocking pain receptors, reducing anxiety, and inducing sleep. They are sometimes called “downers” because they decrease arousal levels.

Depression -

A common mental illness that can be a result from addiction and involves a debilitating, ongoing sadness. Depression can often cause the inability the concentrate or find happiness in activities the individual once appreciated.

Designer Drugs -

A synthetic copy of an illegal drug that is created to look and act similarly to the real thing. They can be just as dangerous if not more than real drugs.

Deterrence -

Using retribution as a warning to discourage people from committing crimes. An example of this would be known jail time for robbing a bank, keeps people from committing the crime.

Detox -

A shortened version of the word “detoxification.” It’s the process of reaching metabolic stabilization by treating the physical issues that happen from withdrawal.

Detoxification -

The process of a person adjusting to life without substances. Detoxification tries to help with relief from withdrawal and is typically one of the earlier steps in a treatment process.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) -

The handbook used by health professionals to diagnose substance use disorders, other psychiatric conditions, or a mix of both. It undergoes revisions every 10 to 20 years with the most recent edition being DSM-5.

Diagnostic Evaluation -

The decision made by a licensed health professional regarding the existence and severity of substance abuse or addiction. Often decided using a diagnostic tool like the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) or International Classification of Diseases (ICD).

Dialectal Behavior Therapy (DBT) -

A scientifically backed cognitive-behavioral treatment commonly used for borderline personality disorder that uses a skill-based method to teach patients how to live in the moment and regulate their emotions. Is also frequently used to treat substance use disorder.

Dirty -

A reference to a drug test that comes back positive for substance use. This word my induce stigma because it insinuates that drug-users are not clean. It is recommended to use appropriate medical terminology instead.

Disease -

A specific abnormal condition that is typically characterized by significant symptoms.

Disease Management -

A process where individuals suffering from chronic health disorders work with health professionals to assist in the maintenance of their health. Certain plans may consist of medications or therapies to alleviate patient’s symptoms and other health conditions contributing to their discomfort. Correctly managed diseases can vastly improve quality of life and reduce the possibility of relapse.

Disease Model of Addiction -

Categorizes addiction as a complex disease with environmental, genetic, biological, and neurobiological influences rather than a social or psychological issue.

Doctor Shopping -

When a patient meets with multiple doctors at the same time without their knowledge to receive higher amounts of medications. This practice has since been prevented thanks to a drug database system that allows doctors to see what a patient is being prescribed from other health professionals.

Dopamine -

A chemical found in the brain that functions as a neurotransmitter to release feelings of positivity and pleasure.

Dope Sick -

A street term used to allude to withdrawal symptoms from drugs such as oxycodone and hydrocodone. This term can create a stigma, so it is preferred to use the terminology “suffering from withdrawal”.

Drug -

A term for either a medication or a non-medical psychoactive substance.

Drug Abuse -

An outdated term that describes the intense overuse of a substance despite the continuous problems the drug use cause for the individual. The term is considered inappropriate and is often replaced with drug misuse, drug use, and addiction.

Drug Classes -

A category of substances that shares certain similarities like chemical composition, effects, and deliberate usage.

Drug Classifications -

The classification of drugs into 5 groups referred to as “schedules” which determine the medical and legal condition of a substance.

Drug Courts -

A specialized court model where judiciary, prosecution, law enforcement, probation, social service, treatment communities, and mental health services join to assist addicted individuals transfer into a long-term recovery program.

Drug Misuse -

An overuse of a drug that is not specifically prescribed by a doctor.

Drug of Choice -

An individual’s preferred illicit or legal substance at any given point in time.

Drug Policy -

Controlled regulations placed on alcohol and other dangerous drugs with addictive qualities.

Drug Tolerance -

Decreased sensitivity to a substance.

Drug-dream -

Vivid, recurring dreams that often depict worries surrounding substance use during an individual’s recovery from addiction.

Drugged Driving -

When someone drives a vehicle under the influence of drugs.

Dry Drunk -

Individuals who suffered from substance abuse disorder who no longer utilize alcohol, but consistently exhibit dysfunctional behavior or fall behind in personal growth in their recovery.

DSM-5 -

The most recently updated manual of mental disorders that is used as a tool for diagnosis by health professionals.

Dual Diagnosis -

Patients who exhibit both a mood disorder and a substance use disorder. Each separate illness needs it’s on treatment plan.


Driving Under the Influence of alcohol or another mind-altering substance that can damage one’s ability to drive.


Driving while intoxicated.

Dysphoria -

A feeling of distress or unease. The opposite of euphoria.

Dyssynergy -

The predisposition of an individual with a substance use disorder to become addicted to another substance or activity.

Early Recovery -

An individual’s first year of recovery from a substance use disorder.

Ecstasy -

A synthetic stimulant that causes hallucinogenic effects and feelings of euphoria. Some side effects include muscle cramping, nausea, chills, and sweating. Also called Molly, E, and MDMA. Long term use can permanently damage serotonin neurons.

Employee Assistance Program (EAP) -

Voluntary intervention programs offered to employees to help manage issues of mental and emotional well-being while recovering from substance abuse disorder.

Enabling -

The act of helping an addicted person do things that they can do on their own or allowing them to make decisions that cause negative consequences, sometimes inhibiting their recovery.

Endogenous Opioid -

Opioids naturally produced in the body that help an individual tolerate pain.

Endorphins -

A natural chemical produced by the brain that mimics the feelings of morphine to reduce pain and increase pleasant feelings throughout the body.

Ethanol -

A compound of alcohol that is created for drinking purposes.

Euphoria -

An increased state of pleasure or elation usually induced by mind-altering drugs.

Evidence Based Practice -

An approach to clinical practice that uses conscientious methods based on extensive research into the techniques.

Evidence Based Programs -

Programs that show the highest effectiveness based on evidence.

Evidence Based Treatment -

Treatment practices that have been evaluated thoroughly through research and found to be highly effective.

Excipient -

An idle component that attaches to a drug to help it connect with an active ingredient.

Exclusions -

Specific treatments or services that are not covered by a health insurance plan.

Extended Care -

A longer term of care that extends past the normal 30, 60, or 90 day short-term care programs. Patients will typically be housed in the care facility until it is determined they’ve beat their addiction.

Extended Triggers -

A certain person, place, or thing that creates vivid memories or restarts old habits for an addicted individual that may cause problems for their recovery.

Family Disease -

Disease in one member of the family affects the rest of the family in different ways, whether it be depression, anxiety, their own addiction, or another reaction.

Federal Confidentiality Law -

A law that prohibits disclosing information or identifying an individual who has suffered from drug addiction and abuse.

Fentanyl -

One of the strongest opioid drugs available. It is 100 times stronger than morphine and is usually used to treat pain after surgery. It is linked to a large amount of overdoses because it is usually mixed with other hard drugs or taken in a lethal dosage.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome -

A syndrome that affects babies who were exposed to alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It causes physical and mental birth defects.

Flashback -

A sudden recurrence of memories after using mind-altering drugs. Flashbacks can occur days to months after the use of the drug.

Food and Drug Administration -

Determines federal laws regarding the safety of certain drugs.

Full Sustained Remission -

A full year free of substance abuse disorder symptoms.

Habit -

An antiquated word for addiction or dependence on a certain substance.

Halfway House -

A residential rehab facility that offers substance dependent individuals a supportive, drug-free environment where they can safety recover. This environment is meant to provide individuals fresh opportunities and the chance to start over and grow.

Hallucinations -

Visions, sounds, or sensations that appear to be real even though they are not.

Hallucinogen -

A type of drug created from a plant or man-made substance that can cause delusions, hallucinations, and distorted perceptions. Some examples of these drugs are LSD, PCP, Psilocybin (mushrooms), or peyote.

Harm Reduction -

Programs and methods that intend to lower the damages associated with the use of addictive substances. These practices focus more on the prevention of harm than the prevention of use itself.

Health Homes -

A care management system created for individuals dealing with serious mental illness disorders, substance abuse issues, heart disease, and other chronic conditions.

Health Information Exchange (HIE) -

The electronic passing of health-related information between associations to provide safer, more efficient, and impartial patient-centered care.

Health Information Technology -

Information processing that deals with the storage, recovery, distribution, and utilization of heath care information related to interaction and decision making.

Heroin -

An illegal, recreational drug made from the opium poppy plant that is used for the feelings of euphoria it creates in the brain of the users. It is made from the opium poppy plant and used in several countries for pain relief during medical procedures. Long term health consequences include insomnia, kidney and liver disease, pneumonia, increased risk of HIV.

Hippocampus -

The area of the brain that controls memory and learning.

Hydrocodone -

An effective semi-synthetic painkiller opioid that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It can be addictive.

Hypothalamus -

The part of the brain that controls common physical functions like drinking, regulating body temperature, eating, and releasing hormones.

Ibogaine -

A psychoactive ingredient that occurs naturally in plants in the Apocynaceae family. It has psychedelic effects, but the safety and effectiveness of the substance are unknown.

Illicit -

Criminal by law.

Impulsivity -

Acting without thought or regard for consequence. Usually thinking about immediate goals rather than long-term happiness.

In-Patient Treatment -

A patient admitted to a hospital or treatment facility that requires overnight stays and medical treatment.

Induction -

The beginning of phasing off of pain-relieving opioids and onto buprenorphine to help treat addiction.

Inflation -

When the behaviors of an addiction tend to grow in regularity.

Informed Consent -

A legal procedure that ensures patients, clients, and research participants are aware of the possible risks and costs involved in treatments.

Inhalant -

Chemical vapors that produced by substances that are inhaled by an individual to create a mind-altering psychoactive effect.

Injection drug use (IDU) -

The act of using drugs through injection. It can increase the risk of transmitting disease via shared needles.

Inpatient Rehabilitation -

Patients who live on facility and receive care 7 days a week for 24 hours a day.

Integrated Health Care -

A treatment plan that is based on the collaboration between primary medical care and behavioral health to create a rounded and comprehensive treatment plan for the specific needs o f the patient.

Integrated Treatment Programs -

Programs that treat substance disorders with the consideration of mental, emotional, social, and physical factors that may cause issues of relapse.

Intensive Outpatient -

A rehab program that allows a patient to reside in their home during recovery because they don’t require a supervised detox. The main emphasis is put on relapse prevention. These programs usually join 3 days a week for several hours and can be moved around daily schedules to make it more convenient for the patient.

Internal Trigger -

Thoughts, ideas, or people that may create the feeling of cravings for individuals who are going through a substance abuse recovery process that may increase the risk of relapse.

Intervention -

A procedure carried out by a clinician or a group of loved ones that is meant to facilitate change in an individual’s substance use.

Intoxication -

Being under the influence of drugs or alcohol to the point where physical abilities are altered.

Intranasal -

Taking a drug through the nose.

Intrinsic Activity -

The maximum effect that a certain drug can produce.

Korsakoff’s Syndrome -

A lingering memory syndrome like amnesia that is caused by thiamine deficiency and is commonly connected to alcohol use disorder.

Kratom -

A recreational psychoactive drug that is taken from the leaves of a kratom plant and used for its opioid-like effects. It is also often used to treat withdrawal from opioids.

Lapse -

When an individual suffering from substance use disorder resumes use of the substance for a short amount of time.

Legal Drugs -

Drugs that are used everyday like alcohol, caffeine, carbohydrates, nicotine, etc.

Length of Stay -

The duration of stay in a residential and outpatient program that is reliant on the needs of individuals and decided through an evaluation process.

Levels of Care -

Varying levels of intensity offered in recovery and treatment centers that are based on the need and severity of the patient.

Licensing -

The approval of treatment and addiction centers to provide services to individuals.

Limbic System -

The interconnected structure of the brain that processes motivations, emotions, and feelings. Very crucial for learning and memory.

Long-Term Recovery -

Remission from substances lasting five years.

Macro Discrimination -

The unfair treatment of a certain group of individuals in a treatment program. This may cause the individuals to leave the treatment program.

Maintenance -

The balance of a patient who is indefinitely on a drug’s lowest effective dose.

Maintenance Dose -

A particular amount of medication used to create the desired level of medication in the blood.

Mandated Treatment -

Treatment decided through a drug court as a condition of parole.

Marijuana -

A recreational and medical drug that is used to treat a variety of illnesses and pain. It can create altered senses in the body and impair memory.

Matrix Model -

An outpatient treatment model backed by evidence that was developed in the 1980s to treat stimulant-based substance use disorders.

Medical Model -

A theory that considers addiction a medical issue instead of a social issue.

Medical Necessity -

The decision made by a patient’s health plan that concludes certain services are necessary to treat or diagnose the individual’s medical condition.

Medication Assisted Detox -

Detoxification from a drug that takes place in a medical setting, often through the support of medications used to assist with withdrawal symptoms and stabilization after quitting substances.

Medication Assisted Treatment -

A treatment program that combines therapy and medication to help with substance use disorders. These types of treatments usually work better than one or the other alone.

Mental Disorder -

A disorder characterized by the disorganization of mind, personality, and emotions that damages the psychological or behavioral functioning of an individual.

Metabolism (of drugs) -

The reactions, both chemical and physical, the body goes through to prepare for the execution of the drug.

Methadone -

A synthetic opioid that is used to effectively reduce withdrawal symptoms caused by opioid addiction and assist in detoxification efforts.

Methadone Maintenance -

Controlled delivery of methadone dosages to help in the recovery from opioid addiction. Patients come to an outpatient clinic daily to receive medication.

Methamphetamines -

A synthetically produced stimulant that creates feelings of euphoria and increased energy. Long term consequences include extreme weight loss, dental issues, hallucinations, and increased blood pressure.

Micro Discrimination -

The personal prejudice individuals suffering from substance abuse disorders experience from other people who have not experienced the difficulties of addiction.

Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention -

Techniques of meditation and mindfulness that create the ability to be present in the moment to help with stress and negative emotions brought on by depression or a substance use disorder.

Moderate Drinking -

Defined by no more than 1 alcoholic drink for women and no more than 2 more for men a day.

Morphine -

A painkilling medication derived from the opium poppy that activates the centers of the brain that cause pain relief.

Motivational Enhancement Therapy -

A type of counseling that is based upon motivational interviewing to help patients fix doubts they may have about their recovery.

Mu Agonist -

A medication that stimulates physiologic action on mu opioid cell receptors.

Mu Opioid Receptor -

A nerve cell receptor that mediates addiction and tolerance to opioids using drugs.

Mutual Help Organizations -

Self-help and peer-support groups that are run by volunteer organizations to help focus on supportive communication and recovery skills/experience. An example is AA, NA, Women for Sobriety, and more.

Naloxone -

Usually known by the brand name Narcan. A medication that obstructs the effects of opioids especially in the case of an overdose. It works within minutes of being injected into the muscle or sprayed through the nose.

Naltrexone -

A medication used to manage dependance on alcohol and opioids that blocks the opioid receptors in the brain to stop the effects the opioids create.

Nar-anon -

A self-help peer group for individuals affected by a loved one that experiences a drug use disorder. The groups share stories with each other to relate on a personal level and show support to one another regarding the difficulties that may arise with a loved one having a drug use disorder.

Narcan -

A medication used for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose that can be administered through nasal spray. It’s prime ingredient is Naloxone.

Narcotic -

A type of drug that when used for medical purposes, helps control pain and induce sleep for patients. Narcotics can also be obtained illegally and used recreationally, which can result in overdose or death.

Narcotics Anonymous -

A peer-support group that carries out the same principles, practices, and structures of Alcoholics Anonymous.

National Board of Addiction Examiners (NBAE) -

A certified board that offers certification for people in the field of addiction.

Natural Recovery -

When remission from substance use disorder is achieved through natural circumstances and without the use of intervention.

Negative Reinforcement -

Enforcing a repeated behavior because it stops something unwanted from happening. (Example- quitting cigarettes to stop your wife from nagging)

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) -

A syndrome inherited by children exposed to opioids and other drugs during pregnancy which causes withdrawal-like symptoms and dependence on drugs after birth.

Neurobiology -

The study of diseases, anatomy, and function of the brain and nervous system.

Neuron (nerve cell) -

A unique cell found in the body and brain that processes information.

Neurotransmitter -

The messenger that relays signals from one cell to another.

Nicotine -

The main active ingredient in tobacco that has a slight stimulating effect when taken in small doses.

NIMBY (Not in my back yard) -

The opposition of surrounding citizens to building rehabilitation and addiction treatment centers in a certain areas because of the possibility of increased crime rate that correlates with addiction.

Nodding Off -

The symptoms of certain drugs which cause the user to fall into an increasingly tired state that is uncontrollable and can last from seconds to minutes.

Nonopioid -

A medication or drug that will not stimulate opioid receptors.

Norepinephrine -

A neurotransmitter found in the brain and nervous system and a hormone that is found and released in the adrenal glands that is responsible for attentiveness, heart rate, blood pressure, and stress responses.

Nucleus Accumbens -

The region of the brain located in the ventral striatum that is involved in reward and motivation. The consumption of addictive drugs, such as opioids directly and indirectly increases the dopamine levels in this area of the brain, which overall contributes to the addictive qualities.

Number Needed to Treat (NNT) -

The average number of individuals who require a specific treatment to prevent an additional negative outcome. The ideal NNT is 1.

Obsession -

A repetitive behavior that can become involuntarily harmful to a person and their day-to-day life. (needing to smoke cigarettes)

Off-Label Use -

The ability for physicians to approve the use of a medication for a different use than specified on the label.

Open Meetings -

A 12-step meeting that is meant to educate attendees to the nature of 12 step meetings and the importance they hold. Can be attended by anyone, even those who do not suffer from substance abuse.

Opiate -

Opium poppy plant’s natural byproducts that are used for drugs and mind-alerting purposes.

Opioid Receptors -

Proteins on neurons that are stimulated endorphins and opioids like heroin.

Opioids -

The synthetic form of opium that is used to treat main and create a euphoric sensation.

Opium -

A very popular drug that is an active ingredient in many muscle-relaxers, tranquilizers, and sleeping pills.

Opponent Process -

The opponent process theory states that the more a person deals with a certain emotion, the less it will affect them.

Outpatient Rehab -

An alcohol and drug treatment program that gives individuals additional freedom to carry out their day-to-day activities such as family, work, and education.

Outpatient Treatment -

A recovery program that offers services in an office or clinical setting and does not require a patient to stay overnight for treatment.

Over-the-Counter Drugs -

Medicine or drugs that are obtainable in any pharmacy without a prescription from a doctor or healthcare provider.

Overdose -

The overconsumption of drugs or alcohol that can lead to a life-threatening bodily reaction to the substance consumed.

Oxford Houses -

A recovery program that operates as a self-sustaining residence to help individuals suffering from substance use disorder to create a healthier lifestyle while remaining abstinent from alcohol and other substances.

Oxycodone -

A semi-synthetically produced pain relief drug that activates reward centers in the brain.

Painkillers -

Medication used to relieve pain and sometimes induce sleep.

Paradoxical Drug Effect -

An unexpected reaction to a substance that differs from the expected outcome. Ex. Feeling pain from a painkiller.

Paranoia -

Distrusting others even if it has no reasonable backing.

Parity -

The state of private and public health insurers to provide equal and fair coverage.

Partial Agonist -

A substance or drug that connects to a receptor and activates it to a smaller amount than a full agonist.

Partial Hospitalization -

A time-limited, intensive drug rehabilitation service for patients who need continuous medical monitoring for stable living.

Passive Referral -

A clinicians attempt to connect a patient suffering from substance use disorder with another service.

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act -

Healthcare legislation that made substance use disorders one of elements of essential health benefits in the US.

Peer Support Group -

Mutual help organizations that create relationships between participating individuals to engage, support and educate each other to recover from substance use disorder. Peer support groups include Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, Marijuana Anonymous, Smart Recovery, and LifeRing.

Person-First Language -

Language expressing that a substance abuse disorder is a secondary aspect of an individual and not the main characteristic of that person’s identity. Instead of describing them as an “addict” they would be described as “a person dealing with substance use disorder”.

Pharmacodynamics -

A drug’s communication with the body and the changes it causes.

Pharmacokinetics -

The way the body reacts after a drug is taken, including how quickly it is absorbed and processed in the body.

Pharmacology -

A specific branch of medicine that deals with the uses and effects of drugs.

Pharmacotherapy -

Treatment programs that involve using medicine or drugs.

Physical Dependence -

The way the human body adapts to a new substance that’s introduced. It refers to the tolerance a person builds after repeated use of a substance.

Physician Health Program -

An agency of the state that observes doctors, patients, and students who suffer from substance use and psychiatric disorders with the intent to protect patients while letting them practice medicine during their own rehabilitation.

Pink Cloud -

A feeling of euphoria that individuals may experience during their initial recovery from a substance disorder.

Placebo -

A substance that contains no actual medicine and is used as a control in drug testing

Polysubstance Abuse -

When someone has abused multiple addictive substances at once.

Post-Acute Withdrawal Syndrome (PAWS) -

Symptoms of withdrawal that occur after the initial acute withdrawal.

Potency -

The concentration of active ingredients of a psychoactive substance.

Precipitated Withdrawal Syndrome -

This type of withdrawal occurs when an agonistic drug such as heroine is replaced with Narcan.

Predatory Drugs -

Drugs used to cause drowsiness or unconsciousness in the user so they can be taken advantage of by the person who drugged them. Some examples are GHB, Ketamine, and Rohypnol.

Prefrontal Cortex -

The part of the brain that is not fully mature until adulthood that deals with problem solving and other mental functions. Drugs used before the full maturation of the brain can create more extensive vulnerability.

Prescription Drug Abuse -

Using a medication that is not prescribed to you for the experience the drug delivers.

Prescription Drug Misuse -

Using a prescription drug that is prescribed to you in a way that is not intended. This is typically how drug addiction can start.

Prescription Drugs -

Drugs that are available only from the order of a physician.

Prevention Paradox -

A scenario where the population of those at moderate to low risk of addiction make up the majority of addicted individuals, whereas only a small portion of the number of addicted individuals are made up of high-risk people.

Problem-Behavioral Theory -

the theory that examines reasons that lead to substance abuse in adolescents that explains the behavior is tied to goals that are unconventional.

Psychedelic Drug -

A drug with hallucinogenic effects that creates a euphoric state of mind.

Psychoactive -

How the brain is affected.

Psychoactive Drug -

Substances that change behavior and cognitive function such as cocaine, crack, and meth.

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy -

Talk therapy that focused on the urges and desires in the patient that may influence the behavior of the patient. The goal is to help the patient gain control and insight to these urges so they can work out internal conflict.

Psychological Dependence -

The emotional need for a substance.

Psychopharmacology -

The study of the way drugs alter mood, perception and sensation.

Psychosis -

Thinking that is not connected to reality. Delusions and hallucinations are common symptoms.

Psychosocial Therapy -

Talk therapy that attempts to help individuals with motivation while fixing their addictive behaviors.

Psychotherapeutics -

Drugs that impact the brain’s function and often treat neurologic disorders.

Psychotropic Drug -

A mind-alerting drug that effects the users mood and behavior.

Rapid Detox -

Detoxification that is started using high doses of opiate antagonists while the individual is under anesthesia.

Reaction Time -

The time it takes your brain to identify an outside stimulus like drugs until the point where the body reacts to it.

Receptor -

The protein on the surface of a cell that a drug or specific chemicals interacts with to transmit a chemical message into the cell.

Recidivism -

Another term for a relapse.

Recovery -

The process of an individual who was previously suffering from substance use disorder changing their unhealthy behavior and picking up healthy habits, therefore improving their physical and psychological well-being in the process.

Recovery Captial -

Certain resources required to stay in active recovery after suffering from a substance use disorder.

Recovery Coach -

An individual who acts as a mentor or peer support for an individual recovering from substance abuse disorder. They are usually from a community organization or 12-step program and are often in recovery as well. They are not a health professional, but their experience with the substance use disorder gives them valuable knowledge into the challenges that go hand in hand with addiction and recovery.

Recovery Community Center -

A meeting spot that facilitates recovery meetings for individuals suffering from substance use disorder and family members who are affected by the addiction.

Recovery Community Organizations -

Non-profit, independent programs facilitated by individuals in local communities who are in recovery.

Recovery Oriented Systems of Care (ROSC) -

A network of recovery services that uses a personalized approach to recovery.

Recovery Rates -

The percentage of addicted individuals who recover and achieve abstinence within their first year of treatment.

Recovery Residences -

A living facility for people recovering from substance abuse disorder that is drug and alcohol free. Usually used between detoxes.

Refusal Skills -

Strategies that help individuals in recovery say no to the use of drugs or alcohol.

Rehab Center -

A facility that provides treatment programs for individuals suffering from substance abuse disorder. Livengrin Rehab centers are located in the Philadelphia Region.

Rehab or Rehabilitation -

The process of a person terminating use of substances like drugs or alcohol to assist in their recovery and hopeful cessation of all substance use. Therapy, 12-step programs, and other elements are usually available at a rehabilitation center for individuals to stay on track with their recovery.

Relapse -

When an individual who has been in recovery begins carrying out harmful behaviors again after a period of abstinence from all substances or addictive activities.

Relapse Prevention -

Treatment program where patients note situations they find themselves in that lead to increased probability of relapse and how to avoid putting themselves in these situations again.

Remission -

The elimination of major symptoms related to withdrawal from substance abuse disorder.

Residential Treatment -

A patient treatment center where people live for several weeks or months and are provided non-medical treatment.

Reversed Tolerance -

When a drug that previously only showed results from higher dosages, begins producing desired results from lower dosage.

Reward -

Something that reinforces a behavior.

Risk Factors -

Certain attributes that increase the probability of substance abuse continuing or restarting.

Risky Substance Use -

Using tobacco and alcohol in a way that threatens the health of the user without meeting the characteristics of substance abuse.

Route of Administration -

The way a drug is dispensed to the body. Most are taken through eating, drinking, injecting, inhaling, smoking, or snorting.

Screening -

Tools used to measure the magnitude of an individual’s addiction. Usually administered through questionnaires regarding life-history.

Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) -

Evidence-based approach that identifies, decreases, and stops the use of unsafe use of substances and substance use disorders through intervention.

Sedative -

A drug with a tranquilizing effect that is used to easy anxiety and make it easier for sleep to occur.

Self-Medication -

Using a drug or substance to minimize the effects of anxiety or stress caused by other mental disorders without the assistance of a health-care professional. Self-medication can be dangerous and lead to addiction if not done correctly.

Semi-Synthetic Opioids -

Opioids created from a combination of synthetic drugs and opium poppy.

Serotonin -

A neurotransmitter that is responsible for perception, movement, and emotions. It’s receptors facilitate the effects of hallucinogens.

Side Effects -

Certain undesirable effects that happen after using drugs. Nausea, dizziness, hunger, confusion, etc.

Slip -

A term that means to continue use of a drug for a short period of time. Nickname for relapse.

Sober -

Not drunk. The state of not being influenced by any substances.

Social Detox -

Detoxification that occurs in a residential setting where 24-hour monitoring is available.

Social Enterprise -

Businesses that are used to improve people’s chances to rejoin their community after suffering from substance abuse disorder. The job’s available usually include selling a good or service and the profits are reinvested back into the community.

Societal Denial -

Society denying the history behind drug-induced euphoria.

Sponsor -

An individual recovering from a substance abuse disorder who volunteers to help a recovering addict go through the 12-step program of recovery created by Alcoholics Anonymous.

Stabilization -

The method of removing addictive drugs from the body in a way that decreases discomfort for the patient. It is frequently called detoxification.

Stages of Change Model -

A way to understand the 5-stage process it takes to change an unwanted behavior, such as substance abuse. The five stages include: Pre-contemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance.

Stigma -

Negative behaviors that surround a certain person, place, or thing that tends to be socially discrediting and creates discrimination against other people. For example people affected by addiction are often looked down upon because most people don’t understand that addiction is a disease and chronic disorder that is very difficult to recover from just like any other disease.

Stimulant -

Drugs that create an alert feeling by acting on the central nervous system.

Student Assistance Program -

School administrators and community mental health & drug agencies that work to remove learning barriers and provide assistance for children affected by substance abuse disorders either personally or from a family member.

Sublingual -

Drugs that are absorbed through membranes under the tongue. One example would be LSD.

Suboxone -

A treatment for individuals addicted to opioids that is meant to remove cravings and stop the abuse of the opioid being used.

Substance Abuse -

A continued use of a drug or substance that becomes harmful to the user and the people around them.

Substance Abuse Professional -

A licensed professional that assesses individuals that have breached a drug-free workplace program administered through the company. They do not treat, but do make recommendation regarding treatment, testing, and aftercare.

Substance Dependence -

A term equal to addiction that also refers to that psychical dependence that occurs after continued drug use.

Substance Misuse -

The use of a drug or substance for purposes that do not fit the proper intended purpose.

Substance Use disorder -

A syndrome created by the misuse of a substance that results in distress and impairment covering a 12 month period.

Sustained Remission -

Someone who has been in remission from a substance abuse disorder for at least one year.

Symptom Triggers Dosing -

Dosing that is only given to a patient when symptoms are visible.

Syndrome -

Traits and symptoms that start together and characterize a type of disease or condition.

Synergistic effect -

When two or more substances are mixed together, the interaction causes an impact that makes the strength of the reaction two times as strong as the substances would be on their own.

Synthetic -

A drug that is created by man entirely from chemicals. Examples include Synthetic marijuana, fentanyl, bath salts, and more. Synthetic Marijuana is often called K2.

Talc -

An ingredient used in pharmaceuticals that has been proven dangerous to the body.

Taper -

The process of slowly reducing the dose of medication over a period to stop any unwanted effects that may happen when the body reacts to lower doses.


The main ingredient in marijuana that causes the effects of euphoria and relaxation.

Therapeutic Community -

A drug-free setting where individuals who suffer from substance abuse disorder can meet up to assist in each other’s recovery through behavior modification and therapy.

Therapeutic Dependence -

When an individual seeks out drugs because they are afraid of withdrawal symptoms that may arise after ceasing the use of a substance.

Therapy -

A psychological form of treatment that intends to help a patient through mental recovery.

Thirteenth Stepping -

When someone involved in a 12-step program becomes romantically involved or intends to become romantically involved with a newer member of AA who has been in recovery for less than a year.

Titration -

The slow increase of a dosage to deliver the ultimate benefits to the patient.

Tolerance -

When a person has used a drug so much that the usual amount no longer effects them to the same extent. They must increase the amount of the drug used for it to give them the desired effect they’re used to.

Tough love -

When a family member, friend, or significant other intends to help promote positive behavior through a disciplined manner that is void of comfort and coddling.

Toxicity -

The extent of a substance or drug to cause damage to or poison an individual.

Track Marks -

Marks on the arms of individuals who repeatedly take drugs through injection. The needles used the administer the drugs create marks on the body which may scar after some time.

Tranquilizers -

Pain-relieving drugs that help ease the effects of psychosis.

Treatment -

The care of a patient that fights against disease or substance abuse disorder. Can be medicative based or therapeutic.

Trigger -

A particular event or thing that creates a flashback to a feeling or event that increases an individual’s physical and psychological relapse.

Twelve-step Facilitation Therapy -

Evidence-based treatment program that facilitates the recovery from substance abuse through the use of 12 community-based steps that require participation from the individuals attempting to recover the substance abuse disorder.

Two-stepping -

The action of only practicing step 1 and step 12 of a 12-step program instead of following the program step by step. Step one is remaining abstinent and step 12 is bringing the message of recovery to other people who suffer from substance abuse disorder.

Ups or Uppers -

Drugs that impact the mind in a pleasurable and euphoric way. (stimulants)

Urge-Peak -

An unexpected increase in cravings.

Urge-Peak Cycle -

The cycle of the ongoing urge to use drugs, usually followed by relapse.

Vaping -

Inhaling nicotine or THC through vapor from a e-cigarette, e-vaporizer or another device.

Ventral Striatum -

Area of the brain where dopamine is released in response to physically rewarding activities like sex, drugs, and eating which is why there is a strong urge to continue repeating behaviors connected with rewarding activities.

Vivitrol -

A medicine used to treat dependence on alcohol that acts by blocking the action of opioids. It cannot be used in individuals taking opioids currently because it will cause immediate withdrawal symptoms.

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome -

A brain disorder that is caused by a alcohol-use disorder that creates a vitamin B1 deficiency. Without the proper amount of thiamine, the brain suffers to function correctly and memories become permanently damaged. Referred to as wet-brain.

Wernicke’s Encephalopathy -

Depletion of vitamin B1 in the central nervous system after experiencing an alcohol use disorder that can cause neurological issues that can become fatal.

Withdrawal -

The sudden decrease in the use of drugs and alcohol that cause the body to form a response that can appear as anxiety, nausea, migraines, and other symptoms.

Withdrawal Symptoms -

Physical and emotional reactions to the cessation of drugs and alcohol previously used in large quantities. Can show up as loss of appetite, panic, vomiting, jitters, migraines, etc.

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